DESERT FARMING MOISTURIZER — Transition from Dry Lands to Domingo Eco-Community

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场地关系与多明戈生态社区场地价值: 场地开发为于美国新墨西哥州圣多明戈印第安聚集区内。其场地有着各样的发展潜力,像相对便利的交通,景观地形、传统的历史保护、农业习俗、旱谷分水线能促进场地的扩张和发展等优势。
多明戈生态社区位于美国新墨西哥州圣多明戈市。项目力图建立位处于沙漠地带农业和多产型景观相结合的,一处服务社区发展、提升经济效应和创造发展的新型生态城市有机农舍社区。设计旨在以开发经济保障型住房为目标同时,建立和谐的文化与历史传承,发展生产型景观、传统与可持续发展相结合。
 
项目阐述
多明戈生态社区作为一处新开发的住宅区项目紧邻于新墨西哥州17世纪时期的印第安圣多明戈传统村寨。印第安人有着悠久的沙漠里种植庄稼的传统。多明戈生态社区设计在整体规划阶段为250户家庭,并以32个家庭单位作为最初的示范试验阶段。社区的主要服务人群为美国印第安居民和部分外州人群。多明戈生态社区将为未来的居民提供一种以生产消耗、休闲社区娱乐、生产自给自足和自产自销相结合的理想生活方式。
设计探索这种生产型的景观设计通过场地设计、生态因素、水文与之交互关系加以不断的完善;意图提供一种在沙漠里创建社区的战略方式,包括环境水处理的方式、农业生产和生产型景观价值并建立和谐的文化与历史传承、发展生产型景观和传统与可持续发展相结合。
 
项目目标
现有项目场地毗邻一个新的小火车站,一处待开发凋零小镇,几处老建筑和不远处的仍需保留的印第安历史建筑。该区域虽处于沙漠区域,但有特点雨季时期。设计目标是建立一个综合生产型的社区,具有缓解干涸的沟壑,回收灰水和生态服务的功能。此外,该设计项目还会提供社区农业生产和休闲活动的相关功能。更重要的是,这个社区将会赋予居民系统的生态有机栖息地,并同时也是社区活动中心好去处。也是带有微湿景观环境的休闲体育场地和民众的游憩场所。
 
设计实施步骤
第一步:从干涸旱谷的分水线初步布置社区
该场地处于实际上处于一处旱谷的中心区域,在雨季时候恰恰是洪水泛滥的地方。然而正是这样不适合建立住宅区域的场地在沙漠里却正好能充分的利用。水在漫过该区域将会给250户居民提供极大的利用机会,并形成9个住宅区。水从山上随着雨季留下到低洼地带,能灌溉庄稼和形成3条主要的水系并分流到居住区组团。而围绕着住宅区建筑外围的拦水坝则将会引导水系分流。而8大地下蓄水池则通过水管将这些分流的水送达到9个住宅区内部,供给居民使用。 这些雨季旱谷的水则被充分的收集,并且加以净化到各个家庭的日常生活洗涤用水。
第二步:家庭灰水收集形成邻里农田和生态微湿地公园
与第一种旱谷拦水坝收集水方式不同,第二种灰水收集是十分复杂的过程。除大量的雨季收集水提供给每家每户日常使用外,每个住宅区内将会有另一个蓄水池收集家庭使用的灰水。而灰水是一种可再次利用的水,是从洗衣机,洗碗机,洗澡水和水龙头流走的洗涤水将收集并且在蓄水池中进行回收和过滤。灰水不断的被收集从LivingMachine中进行层层和消除其有害化学物质,通过管道提供给农业灌溉。通过层层的农田Tank消化和从空隙中过滤,最终清洁的水会通过迭差的农田Tank到达中心低洼锥形中心花园。根据这些层层过滤的水净化过程,整个小区将最终形成一处以中心花园为重点的邻里社区。并且中心花园和各个农田生产和生态水过滤的结合,最终在沙漠中建立一个微型潮湿环境的新型社区。
第三步:食物产品和农业发展
每个农业地块都会有个农业Tank,并有管道与每户相连。这些分支的水管使用的是水滴灌技术,将保持农田节约用水。同时小区内的每个农田地块也是每户责任制,提供给该居民的生活消费以及用于市场和餐馆的供给。而小区内有市场区域用于每户不同农产品交换和购买。居民生活在这里却能自给自足,符合印第安人在美国自治区的特点。
第四步:创建生态社区
从农业生产活动一步步到水收集形成微环境湿地,形成中心公共花园,最终形成有着食品生产休闲生活结合的生态社区。 并且,这些社区综合功能都是处于可以步行到达的住宅区域密度范围内。每个建筑都有自己的内部系统,像太阳能源利用、绿色屋顶和绿墙使得建筑保存凉爽和能源利用等等。每个建筑都是面对太阳朝向并且与街道相连,能便捷地到达中心广场和各家的农田和湿地花园。街道网络都和农田生产活动以及中心花园链接。创建一处生态有机的农田包含着各种因素的结合,包括产品管理、施肥和其他的各种复杂的程序。但是这也是将是个非常积极的设计探索;也是一处利用低科技可持续发展战略在干旱的多明戈地区使用生态过滤和灰水回收创造微湿润环境,并伴有节约能源、充分利用各种资源让沙漠演变成生态绿色社区的景观设计实验。
Domingo Eco-Community is an residential project located in Santo Domingo in New Mexico. The design connects a strategic approach for the establishment of a community with the organic urban farming operation, cultivating agriculture and productive landscape value to serve as a community resource and economic development opportunities in a dry land. The goal is to provide an affordable housing development for a micro-moisture habitat for humanity with the harmony of relationships between cultural form and practice, historical and productive landscapes, conservation and sustainable development.
项目特别感谢:
宾夕法尼亚大学景观建筑系602设计工作室
Gavin Riggall 先生
王巍女士
宋婷女士
Tony Atkin 先生
周梦妮女士
Ann Marie Schneider 女士
Shawn Evans 先生
▼场地挑战和旱谷分水线: 设计最大的挑战是利用旱谷分水线来组织社区的布局并考虑将来的使用者和可持续发展的需求。
Domingo Eco-community is a new community design proposal which locate close to the Santo Domingo Pueblo that was established in 17 centuries in New Mexico. The Domingo Eco-Community involved the design of a new settlement with housing for 250 families in the planning phase, and apply 32 units as a typical block for the testing design. The Eco-community will be a combination of a family consumption farming, a recreational community productive foods for local grocery stores and markets. It investigated the productive and learning potential of work across disciplines, and interact over issues such as site design, site ecology, hydrology and their relationships.
The design is to propose a strategy for the establishment of a community including the water mitigation catchment, cultivating agriculture and productive landscape value in a dry land based on the relationships, cultural form and practice, historic and cultural landscapes, conservation and sustainable development.
 
Project Goals
The community site currently includes an new developed rail station, a small town was left derelict. A few old buildings and ruin of the adobe structures remain from a long period. The design goal is to build a productive community which more like a compound system with mitigating of arroyo water and recycling of grey water to amplify ecological services delivered by community planning. Moreover, the project is to bring together the community shared with farming productions and recreational events. It is also important that the community will generate a systematic ecological habitat that acts as a community activities center. It would be a space for recreational sports and playgrounds combined with the micro-moisture landscape establishment.
 
Design Approaches
1. Organize the community from arroyo watershed
The site, a location in the middle of floodplain and will be in danger of back arroyo water threat during the flood season. The flowing of water across the site as a great opportunity to shape the whole 250 units community with the key considerations for how the settlement is to be developed with 9 blocks. Water runoff from the hills down to the lower point will drain the crops and establish three major green corridor as essential passages to support each clusters in the community. Several water checksum will catch the heavy rain which installed between the edges of houses and hills. Besides, there would have 8 underground cisterns as the water storage destination which collect rain water through the pipes to each blocks. The arroyo water will be restored and
mitigated through those cisterns to cater for irrigation of family farming field.
2. Create a neighborhood farming and recreational micro-moisture park from grey water system
In addition to site arroyo issues, the project has a complex process of grey water resources that is a key piece of organizing the eco-community. Each units possess a family water cistern which would collect the restored water from the daily use, including as the washing machine, dishwasher water, bath water, faucets water. Grey water washed and gradually purified from the storage cistern to living machine mitigation tanks, and then to the pipes supplied for farming field irrigation. Through a series of farming filed digesting water and overflow from the stone seep, which installed as steps and finally direct water down to the center weeds park. Based on such process, the block would eventually creates a neighborhood recreational space for events and landscape value combining the micro-moisture climate and habitat exchange in a dry land.
3. Foods production from agriculture
Each agriculture tank have the major water channel and then transfer from the control dam bypass to the branch pipe. The branch pipe would use the technology of drip irrigation to keep the crops in water demand. Besides, the community farm plots will be accepted by families will provide for family consumption and providing food for local restaurants and markets. The community will have a space for marketing selling and prepared food during market days in weekend as well.
4. Establishment the ecological community
From farming activities, and eventually gathering water to create micro-moisture center public space park, and finally establish a ecological community with food production, recreational value together. Moreover, the residential components are to be built in density and compactness with walkable streets. Each building has its systems, such as the solar power panel, roof green, wall green to keep the house cooling and energy saving. Houses has a front facade that faces with the solar orientation and easy accessible to the street, squares, plaza, and farming center weeds park.
The street and network are in accordance with the farming activities and access to the public weeds park space. Moreover, establish a organic farming practice that includes integrated product
management, composting, and other organic practices. But it would become a model for low tech sustainable site development in Domingo area through the use of bio-filtration of water resources and recycling of grey water to create a micro-moisture space with alternative energy source, solar power to make the transition from desert to a sustainable community.
▼平面布置:雨季的水流为整个社区250户住宅发展形成9大住宅组团提供了机会。从山上径流下低洼地带的水灌溉庄稼并建立了3条主要的绿色走廊,并支撑住宅区内的各个组团。
▼重点平面:这是9个组团社区中的典型的一个。有着同样的生态系统设计,并有着同样的农田社区系统为经济适用型住宅提供生活与环境的和谐发展的同时,建立和谐的文化与历史传承,发展生产型景观、传统与可持续发展相结合。
▼发展过程: 设计过程是建立一个生产型社区,一处利用低科技可持续发展战略在干旱的多明戈地区使用生态过滤和灰水回收创造微湿润环境,并伴有节约能源、充分利用各种资源让沙漠演变成生态绿色社区的景观设计实验。
▼层级关系: 不同的图层和概念图显示了建筑、地形和水流系统以及农田景观中的各样的庄稼和社区发展的生物链。
▼发展阶段: 发展阶段显示了从现有的场地到整个完整的社区形成过程。
▼场地剖面: 总体的场地剖面和中央公园局部剖面。
▼住宅单体:建筑和Living Machine到农田的关系图
▼院落:建筑的前院和后院组成了邻里院落关系,并且也展示了生态交换过程。每个建筑都有自己的内部系统,像太阳能源利用、绿色屋顶和绿墙使得建筑保存凉爽和能源利用等等。每个建筑都是面对太阳朝向并且与街道相连,能便捷地到达中心广场和各家的农田和湿地花园。街道网络都和农田生产活动以及中心花园链接。
▼单体和农业结合: 单体建筑和农田结合一起提供了生产型景观和休闲型景观。
▼夏季农田坡地: 透视图显示了剖地的高差和农田灌溉和居民生活休闲的关系。
▼秋季迭差公园小道: 透视图显示了从建筑前院到中心花园的高差关系。
▼冬季中心花园: 透视图显示中心花园的冬季户外活动景象。
▼场地总体透视: 场地总体透视显示了社区的发展过程和沙漠演变成生态绿色社区——生态湿润霜的功能。